Upton Beall Sinclair, Sr. As he was growing up, Upton's family moved as his father was not successful in his career, he developed a love for reading. He read every book his mother owned for a deeper understanding of the world, he did not start school. He was deficient in math and worked hard to catch up because of his embarrassment. In , the Sinclair family moved to New York, where his father sold shoes. Upton entered the City College of New York five days before his 14th birthday, on September 15, , he wrote jokes, dime novels, magazine articles in boys' weekly and pulp magazines to pay for his tuition.
With that income, he was able to move his parents to an apartment. He studied for a time at Columbia University. His major was law, but he was more interested in writing, he learned several languages, including Spanish and French, he paid the one-time enrollment fee to be able to learn a variety of things. He would sign up for a class and later drop it, he again supported himself through college by writing boys' adventure jokes. He sold ideas to cartoonists.
Using stenographers , he wrote up to 8, words of pulp fiction per day, his only complaint about his educational experience was that it failed to educate him about socialism. After leaving Columbia, he wrote four books in the next four years. Upton became close with Reverend William Wilmerding Moir. Moir taught his beliefs to Sinclair, he was taught to "avoid the subject of sex. Despite their close relationship, Sinclair identified as agnostic. Upton Sinclair dedicated his time to writing poetry. Cather graduated from the University of Nebraska—Lincoln , she lived and worked in Pittsburgh for ten years, supporting herself as a magazine editor and high school English teacher.
At the age of 33 she moved to New York City , her primary home for the rest of her life, though she traveled and spent considerable time at her summer residence on Grand Manan Island , New Brunswick. Cather was born Wilella Sibert Cather in on her maternal grandmother's farm in the Back Creek Valley near Winchester, Virginia , her father was Charles Fectigue Cather, whose family had lived on land in the valley for six generations.
Cather's family originated in Wales, the family name deriving from Cadair Idris , a mountain in Gwynedd. Within a year of Cather's birth, the family moved to Willow Shade , a Greek Revival-style home on acres given to them by her paternal grandparents. At the urging of Charles Cather's parents, the family moved to Nebraska in when Willa was nine years old; the rich, flat farmland appealed to Charles' father, the family wished to escape the tuberculosis outbreaks that were rampant in Virginia.
Willa's father tried his hand at farming for eighteen months. Cather's time in the western state, still on the frontier, was a formative experience for her, she was intensely moved by the dramatic environment and weather, the vastness of the Nebraska prairie, the various cultures of the European-American and Native American families in the area. Like Jim Burden in My Antonia , the young Willa Cather saw the Nebraska frontier as a "place where there was nothing but land: not a country at all, but the materials out of which countries were made Between that earth and that sky I felt erased, blotted out".
She made house calls with the local physician , Dr. Robert Damerell, decided to become a doctor. After Cather's essay on Thomas Carlyle was published in the Nebraska State Journal during her freshman year at the University of Nebraska,—3 she became a regular contributor to the Journal.
In addition to her work with the local paper, Cather served as the managing editor of The Hesperian , the University of Nebraska's student newspaper, associated at the Lincoln Courier , she changed her plans to major in science and become a physician, instead graduating with a B. In , Cather moved to Pittsburgh after being hired to write for the Home Monthly, a women's magazine patterned after the successful Ladies' Home Journal.
During her first year in Pittsburgh, Cather wrote a number of short stories, including "Tommy, the Unsentimental," about a Nebraskan girl with a boy's name, who looks like a boy and saves her father's bank business. Janis P. Stout calls this story one of several Cather works that "demonstrate the speciousness of rigid gender roles and give favorable treatment to characters who undermine conventions. During her first year at McClure's, she wrote a critical biography of Mary Baker Eddy , the founder of Christian Science , although Georgine Milmine , a freelance researcher, was named as the sole author.
Milmine had performed copious amounts of research, but she did not have the resources to produce a manuscript on her own. Eddy and the History of Christian Science. McClure's serialized Cather's first novel, Alexander's Bridge. Most reviews were favorable; the New York Times praised "the dramatic situations and the clever conversations," and The Atlantic called the writing "deft and skillful. These works became both popular and critical successes. Cather was celebrated by national critics such as H. Mencken for writing in plainspoken language about ordinary people. A prolific and versatile writer, Bierce was regarded as one of the most influential journalists in the United States , as a pioneering writer of realist fiction.
For his horror writing, Michael Dirda ranked him alongside H. Lovecraft , his war stories influenced Stephen Crane , Ernest Hemingway , others, he was considered an influential and feared literary critic. In recent decades Bierce has gained wider respect for his poetry.
In December , Bierce traveled to Chihuahua, Mexico , to gain first-hand experience of the Mexican Revolution , he disappeared, was rumored to be traveling with rebel troops. He was never seen again. He wrote critically of both " Puritan values" and people who "made a fuss" about genealogy, he was the tenth of thirteen children, all of whom were given names by their father beginning with the letter "A": in order of birth, the Bierce siblings were Abigail, Ann, Aurelius, Almeda, Albert, Arthur and Aurelia.
His mother was a descendant of William Bradford , his parents were a literary couple who instilled in him a deep love for books and writing. Bierce grew up in Kosciusko County , attending high school at the county seat, Warsaw , he left home at 15 to become a printer's devil at a small abolitionist Ohio newspaper, the Northern Indianan. He participated in the operations in Western Virginia , was present at the Battle of Philippi , received newspaper attention for his daring rescue, under fire, of a gravely wounded comrade at the Battle of Rich Mountain.
Bierce fought at the Battle of Shiloh , a terrifying experience that became a source for several short stories and the memoir "What I Saw of Shiloh". In April he was commissioned a first lieutenant, served on the staff of General William Babcock Hazen as a topographical engineer, making maps of battlefields; as a staff officer, Bierce became known to leading generals such as George H. Thomas and Oliver O. Howard , both of whom supported his application for admission to West Point in May General Hazen believed Bierce would graduate from the military academy "with distinction" and William T.
Sherman endorsed the application for admission though stating he had no personal acquaintance with Bierce. In June , Bierce sustained a serious head wound at the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain , spent the rest of the summer on furlough , returning to active duty in September. He was discharged from the army in January His military career resumed, however, in mid, when he joined General Hazen as part of an expedition to inspect military outposts across the Great Plains ; the expedition traveled by horseback and wagon from Omaha , arriving toward year's end in San Francisco, California.
Both of Bierce's sons died. Day committed suicide after a romantic rejection, Leigh died of pneumonia related to alcoholism. Bierce separated from his wife in , after discovering compromising letters to her from an admirer, they divorced in Mollie Day Bierce died the following year.
Bierce was an avowed agnostic , he suffered from lifelong asthma , as well as complications from his war wounds. In San Francisco, Bierce was awarded the rank of brevet major before resigning from the Army, he remained in San Francisco for many years becoming famous as a contributor or editor of a number of local newspapers and periodicals, including The San Francisco News Letter, The Argonaut , the Overland Monthly , The Californian and The Wasp. Bierce wrote in England from to , contributing to Fun magazine, his first book, The Fiend's Delight, a compilation of his articles, was published in London in by John Camden Hotten under the pseudonym "Dod Grile".
Returning to the United States , he again took up residence in San Francisco. From to , he traveled to Rockerville and Deadwood in the Dakota Territory , to try his hand as local manager for a New York mining company; when the company failed he resumed his career in journalism. From January 1, until September 11, he was editor of The Wasp magazine, in which he began a column titled "Prattle", he became one of the first regular columnists and editorialists on William Randolph Hearst's newspaper, The San Francisco Examiner becoming one of the most prominent and influential writers and journalists of the West Coast.
He remained associated with Hearst Ne. United States The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. With a population of over million people, the U.
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The capital is Washington, D. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico ; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12, years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution , which began in , the subsequent Declaration of Independence in ; the war ended in with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in , with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights , being ratified in to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution , began to soar. The Spanish—American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower , the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of , the Voting Rights Act of and the Fair Housing Act of , outlawed discrimination based on race or color.
Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain " to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia , on April 6, The second draft of the Articles of Confederation , prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, , at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Fashion magazine for women, owned by Hearst Communications. November issue of Cosmopolitan , cover by Harrison Fisher. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Audit Bureau of Circulations.
June 30, Archived from the original on July 24, Retrieved November 30, Archived from the original on September 25, Retrieved September 25, Retrieved January 13, Dodd, Mead and Co. XLII 4 : — Retrieved August 3, March Retrieved May 24, Gemittarius Press. Retrieved September 17, Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press.
14 Vintage "Cosmopolitan" Covers From The Helen Gurley Brown Era
The Cosmopolitan: — After the Election". Postscript—The Election of ". Legislative Graft and the Albany Scandal". Graft as an Expert Trade in Pittsburg". The "Jack-Pot" in Illinois Legislation". The Man the Interests Wanted". Colorado—New Tricks in an Old Game". Senator Gore's Strange Bribe Story". Read Book Online website.
Archived from the original on October 19, Retrieved April 22, Archived from the original on June 12, Retrieved January 6, The New York Times. Ciment, James ed. University of Missouri Press. Retrieved March 21, Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved August 23, New York Times. New Haven: Yale University Press. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Retrieved August 19, Feminist Media Studies : Retrieved February 14, Sara Pendergast and Tom Pendergast.
Gale Virtual Reference Library. Retrieved February 6, The American Beauty Industry Encyclopedia. Retrieved October 16, October 14, February 2, Paul Schlicht told his first-issue readers inside of the front cover that his publication was a "first-class family magazine", then adding, "There will be a department devoted exclusively to the concerns of women, with articles on fashions, on household decoration, on cooking, and the care and management of children, etc. There was also a department for the younger members of the family. John Brisben Walker acquired the magazine in John Brisben Walker was a magazine publisher and automobile entrepreneur in the United States.
In his later years, he was a resident of Jefferson County, Colorado. Elizabeth Bisland Wetmore was an American journalist and author, perhaps best known for her — race around the world against Nellie Bly, which drew worldwide attention. She was a pioneer in her field, and launched a new kind of investigative journalism. Bly was also a writer, inventor, and industrialist. Under John Brisben Walker's ownership, E.
Walker, formerly with Harper's Monthly , took over as the new editor, introducing colour illustrations, serials and book reviews. Annie Besant was a British socialist, theosophist, women's rights activist, writer, orator, educationist, and philanthropist. Regarded as a champion of human freedom, she was an ardent supporter of both Irish and Indian self-rule. She was a prolific author with over three hundred books and pamphlets to her credit. As an educationist, her contributions included the founding of the Banaras Hindu University.
Willa Sibert Cather was an American writer who achieved recognition for her novels of frontier life on the Great Plains, including O Pioneers! In , Cosmopolitan announced plans for a free correspondence school: "No charge of any kind will be made to the student. All expenses for the present will be borne by the Cosmopolitan. No conditions, except a pledge of a given number of hours of study. Also in , H.
Olive Schreiner contributed a lengthy two-part article about the Boer War in the September  and October  issues of Other contributors during this period included O. Henry ,  A. Jack London 's novella, " The Red One ", was published in the October issue  two years after London's death  , and a constant presence from —18 was Arthur B. Reeve , with 82 stories featuring Craig Kennedy , the "scientific detective". Hearst formed Cosmopolitan Productions also known as Cosmopolitan Pictures , a film company based in New York City from to , then Hollywood until The vision for this film company was to make films from stories published in the magazine.
Cosmopolitan magazine was officially titled as Hearst's International Combined with Cosmopolitan from until , but was simply referred to as Cosmopolitan. In June it was shortened to Hearst's and was ultimately titled Hearst's International in May In order to spare serious cutbacks at San Simeon , Hearst merged the magazine Hearst's International with Cosmopolitan effective March But while the Cosmopolitan title on the cover remained at a typeface of eight-four points , over time span the typeface of the Hearst's International decreased to thirty-six points and then to a barely legible twelve points.
After Hearst died in , the Hearst's International disappeared from the magazine cover altogether in April Emphasizing fiction in the s, it was subtitled The Four-Book Magazine since the first section had one novelette, six or eight short stories, two serials, six to eight articles and eight or nine special features, while the other three sections featured two novels and a digest of current non-fiction books. During World War II, sales peaked at 2,, The magazine began to run less fiction during the s.
Circulation dropped to slightly over a million by , a time when magazines were overshadowed during the rise of paperbacks and television. The Golden Age of magazines came to an end as mass market , general interest publications gave way to special interest magazines targeting specialized audiences.
Cosmo was widely known as a "bland" and boring magazine by critics. Cosmopolitan's circulation continued to decline for another decade until Helen Gurley Brown became chief editor in As the editor for 32 years, Brown spent this time using the magazine as an outlet to erase stigma around unmarried women not only having sex, but also enjoying it. She believed that women were allowed to enjoy sex without shame in all cases.
She died in at the age of The magazine set itself apart by frankly discussing sexuality from the point of view that women could and should enjoy sex without guilt. The first issue under Helen Gurley Brown, July ,  featured an article on the birth control pill ,  which had gone on the market exactly five years earlier.
This was not Brown's first publication dealing with sexually liberated women. Her advice book, Sex and the Single Girl , had been a bestseller. Brown sent the message that a woman should have men complement her life, not take it over. Enjoying sex without shame was also a message she incorporated in both publications. In Brown's early years as editor, the magazine received heavy criticism.
In at the feminist Miss America protest , protestors symbolically threw a number of feminine products into a "Freedom Trash Can. In April , a single edition of Cosmopolitan Man was published as a trial, targeted to appeal to men. It was published twice in as a supplement to Cosmopolitan. The magazine, and in particular its cover stories, have become increasingly sexually explicit in tone, and covers have models wearing revealing clothes.
Kroger , the second largest grocery chain in the United States after Walmart, used to cover up Cosmopolitan at checkout stands because of complaints about sexually inappropriate headlines. It was well known for sexual explicitness, with strong sexual language, male nudity, and coverage of such subjects as rape. It shut down in December The magazine currently features topics including sex, relationships, beauty, fashion, and health.
There are 64 worldwide editions of Cosmopolitan , and the magazine is published in 35 languages, with distribution in more than countries making Cosmopolitan the largest-selling young women's magazine in the world. In October , Bauer Media Group announced that after 45 years, publication of the Australian edition of Cosmopolitan would stop due to the commercial viability of the magazine no longer being sustainable. Cosmopolitan has since the s been a women's magazine discussing such topics as sex, health, fitness, and fashion.
Cosmopolitan also has a section called "Ask Him Anything" where a male writer answers readers' questions about men and dating. There is debate whether the responses in this section are representative of the majority of men or only based on the views of the small number of male writers. Cosmopolitan has found popularity in its newfound medium, the "discover" section on Snapchat.
Cosmopolitan's "discover" has over 3 million readers a day. For over a decade, the February issue has featured this award. Cosmopolitan' s November issue features the hottest bachelors from all 50 states. Pictures and profiles of all the Bachelors are posted on www.
A team of Cosmopolitan editors then selects the Bachelor of the Year, who is announced at an annual party and media event in New York. The 50 bachelors generally appear on programs such as The Today Show. In the May issue of Cosmopolitan , the magazine launched the Practice Safe Sun campaign, an initiative aimed at fighting skin cancer by asking readers to stop all forms of tanning other than tanning from a bottle.
Vintage Cosmopolitan Horoscope - February Horoscope
The awards attracted more than 15, entries and winning and highly commended blogs were voted for in several categories including beauty, fashion, lifestyle, and celebrity. The awards launched in August and nominations are open until August 31, All UK-based bloggers and blogs written by British bloggers abroad with a British perspective can be entered. In May , Cosmopolitan UK announced they were launching their first ever fragrance.
This is considered a first in the magazine industry. Named 'Cosmopolitan, The Fragrance', the perfume takes on the notion of their much-loved phrase 'Fun, Fearless Female' and was set to launch in September. Cosmopolitan played a role in passing the Seventeenth Amendment to the US Constitution , which allowed for the popular election of Senators. In September , Cosmopolitan began endorsing political candidates.
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Women do pretzel legs and tuck into ourselves. Ugh, a little depressing. But her message was positive.
She referenced research…. The song lyric that represents my life is: The most magical place on earth to me is: The last person I texted was: and it said… My doodles look like this: The best advice I ever got on love was from: who told me: I am afraid of: The movie I would most want to star in a remake of is: To my Cosmo readers: Vest, The Blonds.
Skirt, Jonathan Simkhai. Bracelet, Shaun Leane. On left hand Ring, M. Design by Matthew Campbell Laurenza. On right hand Gold bar ring, Shaun Leane.